从考试实际情况看来，无原题；模拟试题的难度大于实际考试题目，实际考试选项的迷惑性较小。考题主要考察对敏捷式商业分析的 7 大原则，技术，以及具体场景下所采取的的应对措施几大方面进行提问；需要把所有题目选项读完，并选择相对较合适解决所提问题的选项，没有绝对意义上的正确答案，相反，有时合适的选项会有 2 项，需要根据题目设置的场景选取四个选项中更适合问题作答的一项
敏捷式商业分析的基本含义以及目标：maximize the outcome(value delivered) with minimum output: ”Do less and do the right things right”; 此项目的在多个考题的选项中出现，也是比较契合很多问题核心的一个选项，需牢记。
需要牢记敏捷核心价值观：respect, courage, collaboration, continuous learning, customer focus, and value maximization
- iterate to learn,
- simplify to avoid waste,
- consider context and adapt to realities,
- reflect on feedback and adapt both product and process,
团队在工作中使用的技术，流程和工具组合称作 Methodology。敏捷的不同流派 Scrum, Kanban, Extreme Programming, Adaptive Software Development, Lean Software Development, SAFe, LeSS, DAD,属于 Agile framework，敏捷没有一劳永逸的工作方法适用于所有应用场景。
- Individuals and interactions over processes and tools.
- Responding to change over following a plan.
Agile Mindset 范畴内，AAC 考试很多题目是通过具体的实践操作提问其中应用的敏捷原则，技术或价值观。与 CBAP 不同的是，考试在场景中列举不太理想的实践案例让考生根据敏捷式商业分析的原则在改善场景中的做法，而不是列举背景让考生提出具体的解决方案，这一点考察的是是否意识形态中拥抱了敏捷。拒绝“非黑即白” 式的思维模式。
题目通常是描述每个原则对应的具体做法，让考生选取反映了哪项敏捷式商业分析的原则。根据 MIT 校训“Mens et Manus”，给出实践做法，选取实践中反映的敏捷式商业分析的原则，即由 Hand 选 Mind。
- See the Whole
Analyze the need in the context of the big picture, focusing on the business context why a change is necessary.
- Think as a Customer
Ensuring solutions incorporate the voice of the customer through a clear understanding of the expected user experience.
- Analyze to Determine What is Valuable
Continuously assess and prioritize work to be done in order to maximize the value being delivered at any point in time.
- Get Real Using Examples
Building a shared understanding of the need and how the solution will satisfy that need.
- Understand What is Doable
Understand how to deliver a solution within given constraints.
- Stimulate Collaboration and Continuous Improvement
Creating and contributing to an environment where all stakeholders contribute value on an ongoing basis.
- Avoid Waste
identifying which activities add value and which activities do not add value.
Waste can be divided into two sets of activities:
☆ those that have value but do not directly contribute to satisfying the need, and
☆ those activities that do not add value at all.
The aim is to completely remove those activities that do not add value, and minimize those activities that do not directly contribute to satisfying the need.
II.Analysis at Multiple Horizons
The Agile Extension defines three horizons: Strategy, Initiative, and Delivery.
These planning horizons provide a framework for the shift in focus that occurs when moving between understanding the long-term strategic needs of the organization and the immediate needs of a customer.
Constant communication and collaboration across all horizons is essential to allow for rapid feedback andlearning which supports effective decision making across the organization.
Overview of the Three Horizons
The Strategy Horizon
Decisions that impact the entire organization identify the products, services, and initiatives to which the organization allocates resources.
Agile BAs support decisions about strategy and the allocation of available resources in support of that strategy.
The time horizon of the Strategy Horizon may be as short as three months to as long as multiple years ahead.
The Initiative Horizon
Decisions that impact a particular goal, initiative, or team.
Agile BAs support initiative about how to create value with the resources available, better understanding the needs of the stakeholders and the options available.
Agile business analysis at the Initiative Horizon may support decision makers in a single team or in multiple teams. Each team may work independently or they may be highly interdependent, leading to a need to understand complex dependencies between teams.
The Delivery Horizon
Decisions made regarding the delivery of the solution.
Business analysis practitioners operating at this horizon work with the delivery team to understand how to best break down work, how to deliver and test the value the team is creating, and how to learn quickly from the work the team is doing.
Teams work on prioritized work from the backlog and turns it into a valuable product or service that meets the identified outcome or goal of the solution.
Agility at Each Horizon
III. Strategy Horizon
在战略层面，商业分析从业人员需要”understand the organizational goals and how they map to the goals of individual initiatives.”
At the Strategy Horizon, business analysis practitioners identify a potential need and then provide enough detail to the team working at the Initiative Horizon for them to understand the need and develop potential solutions and features.
At the Strategy Horizon, business analysis practitioners focus on risks, changing circumstances, and new needs that might change the prioritization of decisions made by the organization as multiple initiatives progress.
以上内容参见 Agile Extension to BABOK 4.3.2
Decision makers frequently delay launching initiatives until the information they have provides them with confidence that the initiative will be successful. 切勿过早地决策。决策要遵循 JIT 原则。
At the Strategy Horizon, agile business analysis provides just enough information to decide whether to begin a new initiative.
- Is there a need to satisfy?
- Is the need aligned with the organization’s strategic objectives?
- Is it worth satisfying that need?
- Do we believe we have the right team to provide a good enough solution?
- Are we able to measure the success of the initiative?
此外，需要将敏捷商业分析 7 大原则在战略层面应用的侧重点和关键词记牢，详见 Agile
Extension to BABOK 4.6
Analysis performed at the Initiative Horizon is concerned with the decisions surrounding defining and delivering a solution that satisfies a need identified at the Strategy Horizon. The goal of this analysis is to deliver a solution in a way that minimizes output and maximizes outcome.
What solution options satisfy the need?
Which solution option appears to provide the maximum outcome with the minimum output and fits within the given constraints?
What are the solution components as described by features of the preferred solution option?
What features should be delivered now, next, and in the future?
Has enough value been delivered to satisfy the need?
Based on ongoing feedback and learning, should the solution continue, change, or be cancelled?
At the Initiative Horizon, business analysis practitioners use feedback from the Strategy and Delivery Horizons to determine if the solution is producing the anticipated outcome.
- a) identify solution options worth considering for implementation;
- b) recommend the solution options based on which solution option provides the maximum outcome with the minimum output （analyze to determine what is valuable）and fits within identified constraints(understand what is doable). (define the scope of solution space);
- c) identify different possible aspects and parts of the solution (solution features) that will provide the desired outcome. (story mapping)
- d) prioritize and sequence the components(backlog refinement:星级考点，考试中多次出现)；
- e) determine if the need is satisfied is based on assessing if the outputs delivered meet the desired outcome.
- f) assess continually solutions to determine if they are delivering the desired outcomes and sufficient value based on both the identified measures of success, as well as feedback received from the Strategy and Delivery Horizons
As a general reference, the Initiative Horizon guides analysis and action over the period of the upcoming one to three months.
Delivering continuous small increments of value (brought forth by solution increments realized in each sprint/iteration) generates continuous feedback and the learning from that feedback is used to determine if changes in direction are needed. (三个层面持续相互反馈)
The Initiative Horizon provides feedback to the Delivery Horizon by indicating the priority and sequencing of solution components. （backlog refinement）
Extension to BABOK 5.6
Analysis at the Delivery Horizon focuses on the specific aspect of the solution that is currently being implemented. Business analysis practitioners collaborate with team members to ensure there is a shared understanding of the need, identify and prioritize a backlog of actions that will meet the need, and establish a means of assessing outcomes.
They do so while seeking to expend the least amount of effort discovering the information necessary to make informed decisions about the solution ❖ Ensuring that User Stories are Ready for Implementation
A user story only needs to be ready for implementation when it will be placed into development in the immediate or near future.
❖ Maintaining the Backlog
the priority sequencing of items in the backlog;
ensuring there are enough items in the backlog to support near-term development efforts. ( create features and decompose those features into user stories, which in turn are refined into well-written user stories.)
Business analysis practitioners continually re-prioritize, remove, and add items to the backlog formally at a backlog refinement meeting or informally as needed in the course of work.
❖ Supporting Successful Delivery
Clearing any analysis related roadblocks and applying learning to avoid them in the future can include appropriately handling sequencing and dependencies related to stories, coordinating with external teams and stakeholders, and answering clarifying questions for items currently in the midst of implementation.
❖ Ensuring Learning Happens in the Agile Context
At the Delivery Horizon, learning is derived from both processes and the products of those processes, and is framed by the desired outcomes of the immediate work effort.
Business analysis practitioners consider if the value delivered in the most recent increment was what was expected. Answers to this question may result in changes to the nature or prioritization of
stories for the near-term delivery effort.（价值交付的时效性很重要，JIT）
❖ Maintaining Focus on the Product Vision, Customer, and Value
Constant communication and maintaining a shared understanding of the need and outcomes being sought helps all stakeholders to avoid waste and to efficiently and rapidly deliver value.
❖ Time Frames
Over the period of the upcoming one to four weeks to as long as six to eight weeks.
❖ Feedback and Learning
At the Delivery Horizon, feedback is rapid and ideally in small chunks. Each story delivers a small and rapidly delivered increment of value.
Items in the backlog can be re-prioritized, changed, or removed and new stories can be added based on the reassessment of potential value from the feedback and learning.
All feedback and learning is considered in the context of the other horizons. If the learning suggests the entire initiative or strategy might need to adapt, it can be used as feedback to the Initiative or Strategy Horizons.
Feedback and learning can occur both in structured processes such as retrospectives or reviews, as well as informally through day-to-day interactions and implementations.
Extension to BABOK6.6
PSI 允许考前 30 分钟发起测试流程(launch your exam)。首先会要求下载 PSI 专用安全浏览器，建议通过 Chrome 浏览器登录考试，需要注意的是需提前关闭杀毒软件，安全卫士等程序，（以避免网络摄像头被杀软屏蔽）并在运行 PSI 浏览器之前关闭 Chrome 浏览器。
启动 PSI 安全浏览器后，监考官会要求将身份证件拍照，考生本人面对摄像头拍照，并将笔记本电脑的摄像头环视房间一周，包括桌子底下也要拍摄视频。Qualification documents review 通过后，监考官会通过聊天窗口告知考场纪律，考试规则，例如面部必须保持在摄像头覆盖范围内（笔者由于笔记本电脑角度问题面部曾三次位于摄像头拍照范围以外而被警告），不准用手遮挡面部任何区域，房间不得有噪音干扰，房间在考试时不得有其他人进入。
考试的试题基本都是对于考生敏捷式商业分析的思维进行考察，验证应试者是否在意识形态上变得敏捷。题目没有任何与模拟题重复的情况，谢老师之前提醒的“无题可刷”的情况是与真实情况相符的。所以的题目均是场景题，命题者将敏捷商业分析的“剑招”灵活地布设在题目的场景中，要求考生通过领略“剑意”而作答，这也是 AAC 考试的特点，“明修栈道，暗度陈仓”，“项庄舞剑，意在沛公”的情况比比皆是，即通过场景作答场景背后的敏捷分析理念，原则以及相关技术。另外，BABOK 也有部分考点在考题中出现（CBAP 认证试题），有余力的同学可以兼顾复习。
考题的难度整体上和 IIBA 官网给出的题目样例相符，比赵老师提供的模拟试题略易，题干不会超过 3 行字，但需要仔细审题，弄清楚题目具体问的内容，再根据给出的四个选项选出最合适的那一项。