【干货预警!】AAC首篇!IIBA-AAC 备考感悟考试实战总体回顾-艾威培训

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本文对于战略,举措,交付三个层面敏捷分析的原则,理念进行重点归纳与突出,标红的部分大多涉及题目的核心(根据本人经验)。关于敏捷分析涉及的技术,本文不做论述,请参考谢老师整理的复习提纲,已经很全面了。本文侧重分享考试的心得体会。

从考试实际情况看来,无原题;模拟试题的难度大于实际考试题目,实际考试选项的迷惑性较小。考题主要考察对敏捷式商业分析的 7 大原则,技术,以及具体场景下所采取的的应对措施几大方面进行提问;需要把所有题目选项读完,并选择相对较合适解决所提问题的选项,没有绝对意义上的正确答案,相反,有时合适的选项会有 2 项,需要根据题目设置的场景选取四个选项中更适合问题作答的一项

I.Agile Mindset

敏捷式商业分析的基本含义以及目标:maximize the outcome(value delivered) with minimum output: ”Do less and do the right things right”; 此项目的在多个考题的选项中出现,也是比较契合很多问题核心的一个选项,需牢记。

需要牢记敏捷核心价值观:respect, courage, collaboration, continuous learning, customer focus, and value maximization

敏捷意识形态中重点考察的是:

  • iterate to learn,

迭代式学习,倾听干系人对solution increments的反馈以实现快速和有效的价值交付。

  • simplify to avoid waste,

列举很多违法敏捷的做法,识别哪些行为或输出属于浪费:例如在迭代开始前6 个月开始写高阶的需求文档,这属于浪费。(原题)

  • consider context and adapt to realities,

背景通常是欠佳的做法,让考生思考 如何做才能更好地适应场景中的限制条件实现持续改善。

  • reflect on feedback and adapt both product and process,

对于干系人的反馈积极反思,并调整产品的功能和流程。

团队在工作中使用的技术,流程和工具组合称作 Methodology。敏捷的不同流派 Scrum, Kanban, Extreme Programming, Adaptive Software Development, Lean Software Development, SAFe, LeSS, DAD,属于 Agile framework,敏捷没有一劳永逸的工作方法适用于所有应用场景。

敏捷宣言:

  1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools.
  2. Responding to change over following a plan.

上述两项出现在考题选项中较多,在场景中描述具体的实践做法,问反映了敏捷宣言的哪几项原则。

Agile Mindset 范畴内,AAC 考试很多题目是通过具体的实践操作提问其中应用的敏捷原则,技术或价值观。与 CBAP 不同的是,考试在场景中列举不太理想的实践案例让考生根据敏捷式商业分析的原则在改善场景中的做法,而不是列举背景让考生提出具体的解决方案,这一点考察的是是否意识形态中拥抱了敏捷。拒绝“非黑即白” 式的思维模式。

敏捷式商业分析的七大原则:

题目通常是描述每个原则对应的具体做法,让考生选取反映了哪项敏捷式商业分析的原则。根据 MIT 校训“Mens et Manus”,给出实践做法,选取实践中反映的敏捷式商业分析的原则,即由 Hand 选 Mind。

  • See the Whole

Analyze the need in the context of the big picture, focusing on the business context why a change is necessary.

  • Think as a Customer

Ensuring solutions incorporate the voice of the customer through a clear understanding of the expected user experience.

  • Analyze to Determine What is Valuable

Continuously assess and prioritize work to be done in order to maximize the value being delivered at any point in time.

  • Get Real Using Examples

Building a shared understanding of the need and how the solution will satisfy that need.

  • Understand What is Doable

Understand how to deliver a solution within given constraints.

  • Stimulate Collaboration and Continuous Improvement

Creating and contributing to an environment where all stakeholders contribute value on an ongoing basis.

  • Avoid Waste

identifying which activities add value and which activities do not add value.

Waste can be divided into two sets of activities:

☆ those that have value but do not directly contribute to satisfying the need, and

☆ those activities that do not add value at all.

The aim is to completely remove those activities that do not add value, and minimize those activities that do not directly contribute to satisfying the need.

BACCM 模型和敏捷式商业分析的原则的对应需要牢记。

II.Analysis at Multiple Horizons

The Agile Extension defines three horizons: Strategy, Initiative, and Delivery.

These planning horizons provide a framework for the shift in focus that occurs when moving between understanding the long-term strategic needs of the organization and the immediate needs of a customer.

Constant communication and collaboration across all horizons is essential to allow for rapid feedback andlearning which supports effective decision making across the organization.

三个层面的沟通与合作旨在支持组织作出有效的决策。

Overview of the Three Horizons

需要区分每个层面敏捷式商业分析所履行的具体任务的不同之处以便于更好地对应题目中的场景,根据不同层面的决策的不同方面,选出最契合问题核心的选项。

The Strategy Horizon

Decisions that impact the entire organization identify the products, services, and initiatives to which the organization allocates resources.

Agile BAs support decisions about strategy and the allocation of available resources in support of that strategy.

The time horizon of the Strategy Horizon may be as short as three months to as long as multiple years ahead.

战略层面识别业务需要并根据资源拥有情况决定是否为满足识别出业务需要的举措匹配资源。

The Initiative Horizon

Decisions that impact a particular goal, initiative, or team.

Agile BAs support initiative about how to create value with the resources available, better understanding the needs of the stakeholders and the options available.

Agile business analysis at the Initiative Horizon may support decision makers in a single team or in multiple teams. Each team may work independently or they may be highly interdependent, leading to a need to understand complex dependencies between teams.

在举措层面敏捷分析师根据在战略层面识别的业务需要识别能够满足业务需要的解决方案可选项。

The Delivery Horizon

Decisions made regarding the delivery of the solution.

Business analysis practitioners operating at this horizon work with the delivery team to understand how to best break down work, how to deliver and test the value the team is creating, and how to learn quickly from the work the team is doing.

Teams work on prioritized work from the backlog and turns it into a valuable product or service that meets the identified outcome or goal of the solution.

P-D-C-A

在交付层面,敏捷分析师与交付团队一同探讨如何最优地分解工作,交付并检验价值并积极听取干系人对于交付的解决方案增量的反馈。

Agility at Each Horizon

III. Strategy Horizon

在战略层面,商业分析从业人员需要”understand the organizational goals and how they map to the goals of individual initiatives.”

在战略层面商业分析人员不介入分析具体举措的细节。

 

At the Strategy Horizon, business analysis practitioners identify a potential need and then provide enough detail to the team working at the Initiative Horizon for them to understand the need and develop potential solutions and features.

这是敏捷商业分析师在战略层面工作的核心概括。战略层面的敏捷分析师主要负责识别潜在的业务需要;而举措层面的敏捷分析师理解在战略层面识别的业务需要并开发潜在的方案选项和方案组成部分。

 

笔者认为在考试中要时刻牢记战略举措和交付层面的敏捷分析师的工作范围的不同划分,以便于在第一时间内将题目场景中的敏捷分析师做好层面的定位,以确定其工作的范围;本着 “学概念,找问题”的原则,解析问题的本质以及问题所发生的具体层面(战略?举措?还是交付?),对问题所涉及的敏捷商业分析的原则,技术以及建议的行动作出相对合适的选择。

 

At the Strategy Horizon, business analysis practitioners focus on risks, changing circumstances, and new needs that might change the prioritization of decisions made by the organization as multiple initiatives progress.

 

处于战略层面的敏捷分析师面对组织所处的商业环境是充满风险和动荡的,根据新的业务需要的出现,组织会改变决策的优先级,这会影响到举措层面和交付层面的具体工作的实施,因此在上述情况发生时,战略敏捷分析师需要持续并周期性地与其他两个层面的分析师和团队保持沟通和快速反馈,以便于其他两个层面的分析师在划分解决方案选项优先级和未完事项列表中用户故事优先级时,与组织的战略保持一致。

 

以上内容参见 Agile Extension to BABOK 4.3.2

 

Decision makers frequently delay launching initiatives until the information they have provides them with confidence that the initiative will be successful. 切勿过早地决策。决策要遵循 JIT 原则。

 

At the Strategy Horizon, agile business analysis provides just enough information to decide whether to begin a new initiative.

 

敏捷分析师在战略层面辅助决策是否发起一项新的举措,而不对举措的具体细节进行分析。

  • Is there a need to satisfy?
  • Is the need aligned with the organization’s strategic objectives?
  • Is it worth satisfying that need?
  • Do we believe we have the right team to provide a good enough solution?
  • Are we able to measure the success of the initiative?

 

以上问题需要牢记,题目中会在场景中列出若干问题,提问考生商业分析发生在哪个层面。

 

此外,需要将敏捷商业分析 7 大原则在战略层面应用的侧重点和关键词记牢,详见 Agile

Extension to BABOK 4.6

 

IV.Initiative Horizon

Analysis performed at the Initiative Horizon is concerned with the decisions surrounding defining and delivering a solution that satisfies a need identified at the Strategy Horizon. The goal of this analysis is to deliver a solution in a way that minimizes output and maximizes outcome.

 

需要牢记的是举措层面敏捷商业分析是围绕定义并交付满足在战略层面识别的业务需要的方案,目的是交付此方案时用最少的可交付成果获取最大的价值。

 

支持此目标需要回答以下问题:(熟读并牢记,题目中会在场景中列出若干问题,提问考生商业分析发生在哪个层面。)

 

 

What solution options satisfy the need?

Which solution option appears to provide the maximum outcome with the minimum output and fits within the given constraints?

What are the solution components as described by features of the preferred solution option?

What features should be delivered now, next, and in the future?

Has enough value been delivered to satisfy the need?

Based on ongoing feedback and learning, should the solution continue, change, or be cancelled?

 

At the Initiative Horizon, business analysis practitioners use feedback from the Strategy and Delivery Horizons to determine if the solution is producing the anticipated outcome.

举措层面定义的方案将被战略层面和交付层面评估是否产生了预期的效果(价值)。

 

敏捷商业分析师在举措层面的主要工作范围包括:(标红关键词将会是出题要点)

 

  1. a)      identify solution options worth considering for implementation;
  2. b)      recommend the solution options based on which solution option provides the maximum outcome with the minimum output (analyze to determine what is valuable)and fits within identified constraints(understand what is doable). (define the scope of solution space);
  3. c)      identify different possible aspects and parts of the solution (solution features) that will provide the desired outcome. (story mapping)
  4. d)      prioritize and sequence the components(backlog refinement:星级考点,考试中多次出现);
  5. e)      determine if the need is satisfied is based on assessing if the outputs delivered meet the desired outcome.
  6. f)       assess continually solutions to determine if they are delivering the desired outcomes and sufficient value based on both the identified measures of success, as well as feedback received from the Strategy and Delivery Horizons

 

 

As a general reference, the Initiative Horizon guides analysis and action over the period of the upcoming one to three months.

 

Delivering continuous small increments of value (brought forth by solution increments realized in each sprint/iteration) generates continuous feedback and the learning from that feedback is used to determine if changes in direction are needed. (三个层面持续相互反馈)

 

The Initiative Horizon provides feedback to the Delivery Horizon by indicating the priority and sequencing of solution components. (backlog refinement)

 

此外,需要将敏捷商业分析7大原则在举措层面应用的侧重点和关键词记牢,详见Agile

Extension to BABOK 5.6

V.Delivery Horizon

Analysis at the Delivery Horizon focuses on the specific aspect of the solution that is currently being implemented. Business analysis practitioners collaborate with team members to ensure there is a shared understanding of the need, identify and prioritize a backlog of actions that will meet the need, and establish a means of assessing outcomes.

They do so while seeking to expend the least amount of effort discovering the information necessary to make informed decisions about the solution  ❖ Ensuring that User Stories are Ready for Implementation

INVEST criteria:

Independent

Negotiable

Valuable

Estimable

Seized appropriately

Testable;

A user story only needs to be ready for implementation when it will be placed into development in the immediate or near future.

 

❖ Maintaining the Backlog

the priority sequencing of items in the backlog;

ensuring there are enough items in the backlog to support near-term development efforts. ( create features and decompose those features into user stories, which in turn are refined into well-written user stories.)

 

Business analysis practitioners continually re-prioritize, remove, and add items to the backlog formally at a backlog refinement meeting or informally as needed in the course of work.

 

❖  Supporting Successful Delivery

Clearing any analysis related roadblocks and applying learning to avoid them in the future can include appropriately handling sequencing and dependencies related to stories, coordinating with external teams and stakeholders, and answering clarifying questions for items currently in the midst of implementation.

 

❖  Ensuring Learning Happens in the Agile Context

At the Delivery Horizon, learning is derived from both processes and the products of those processes, and is framed by the desired outcomes of the immediate work effort.

 

Business analysis practitioners consider if the value delivered in the most recent increment was what was expected. Answers to this question may result in changes to the nature or prioritization of

stories for the near-term delivery effort.(价值交付的时效性很重要,JIT)

 

❖  Maintaining Focus on the Product Vision, Customer, and Value

Constant communication and maintaining a shared understanding of the need and outcomes being sought helps all stakeholders to avoid waste and to efficiently and rapidly deliver value.

 

❖  Time Frames

Over the period of the upcoming one to four weeks to as long as six to eight weeks.

❖  Feedback and Learning

At the Delivery Horizon, feedback is rapid and ideally in small chunks. Each story delivers a small and rapidly delivered increment of value.

Items in the backlog can be re-prioritized, changed, or removed and new stories can be added based on the reassessment of potential value from the feedback and learning.

All feedback and learning is considered in the context of the other horizons. If the learning suggests the entire initiative or strategy might need to adapt, it can be used as feedback to the Initiative or Strategy Horizons.

Feedback and learning can occur both in structured processes such as retrospectives or reviews, as well as informally through day-to-day interactions and implementations.

 

此外,需要将敏捷商业分析7大原则在交付层面应用的侧重点和关键词记牢,详见Agile

Extension to BABOK6.6

VI.线上考试注意事项

PSI 允许考前 30 分钟发起测试流程(launch your exam)。首先会要求下载 PSI 专用安全浏览器,建议通过 Chrome 浏览器登录考试,需要注意的是需提前关闭杀毒软件,安全卫士等程序,(以避免网络摄像头被杀软屏蔽)并在运行 PSI 浏览器之前关闭 Chrome 浏览器。

启动 PSI 安全浏览器后,监考官会要求将身份证件拍照,考生本人面对摄像头拍照,并将笔记本电脑的摄像头环视房间一周,包括桌子底下也要拍摄视频。Qualification documents review 通过后,监考官会通过聊天窗口告知考场纪律,考试规则,例如面部必须保持在摄像头覆盖范围内(笔者由于笔记本电脑角度问题面部曾三次位于摄像头拍照范围以外而被警告),不准用手遮挡面部任何区域,房间不得有噪音干扰,房间在考试时不得有其他人进入。

考试期间可以喝水,但必须是透明塑料瓶装水,不得吃东西,不得读题出声。

去卫生间回到座位后还要重新出示身份证件给考官复核,将电脑环视房间一周(包括桌子底下)。

  • 考后感悟总结:

考试的试题基本都是对于考生敏捷式商业分析的思维进行考察,验证应试者是否在意识形态上变得敏捷。题目没有任何与模拟题重复的情况,谢老师之前提醒的“无题可刷”的情况是与真实情况相符的。所以的题目均是场景题,命题者将敏捷商业分析的“剑招”灵活地布设在题目的场景中,要求考生通过领略“剑意”而作答,这也是 AAC 考试的特点,“明修栈道,暗度陈仓”,“项庄舞剑,意在沛公”的情况比比皆是,即通过场景作答场景背后的敏捷分析理念,原则以及相关技术。另外,BABOK 也有部分考点在考题中出现(CBAP 认证试题),有余力的同学可以兼顾复习。

考题的难度整体上和 IIBA 官网给出的题目样例相符,比赵老师提供的模拟试题略易,题干不会超过 3 行字,但需要仔细审题,弄清楚题目具体问的内容,再根据给出的四个选项选出最合适的那一项。

最后,祝大家考试成功!

 

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